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Carbetocin reduces the need for additional uterotonics in elective caesarean delivery: a systematic review, meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomised controlled trials

      Highlights

      • Carbetocin is superior to oxytocin against postpartum hemorrhage in mixed populations.
      • Data were analysed only from patients having elective caesarean deliveries.
      • Trial sequential analysis showed carbetocin reduced need for additional uterotonics.
      • Additional trials are needed to show the effect of carbetocin on bleeding-related outcomes.

      Abstract

      Background

      Carbetocin has been found to be superior to oxytocin in terms of need for additional uterotonics and prevention of postpartum haemorrhage at caesarean delivery. However, this is based on combined data from labouring and non-labouring parturients and it remains unclear how effective carbetocin is in the purely elective setting. The aim of this review was to compare carbetocin to oxytocin in elective caesarean delivery.

      Methods

      Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, and the Cochrane databases were searched for randomised controlled trials in any language. The primary outcome was need for additional uterotonics. Secondary outcomes were mean blood loss, need for blood transfusion and incidence of postpartum haemorrhage >1000 mL.

      Results

      Nine studies with a total of 1962 patients were included. Trial sequential analysis confirmed that the information size (n=1692) had surpassed that required (n=1166) in order to demonstrate a statistically significant reduction in the use of additional uterotonics. Need for additional uterotonics was reduced by 53% with carbetocin compared to oxytocin (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.64; P <0.001, I2=63.5). The number needed-to-treat was 11. The risk of bias, data heterogeneity and inconsistency in reporting bleeding outcomes made it difficult to reach definite conclusions about prevention of PPH.

      Conclusions

      Carbetocin is associated with a reduced need for additional uterotonics when compared with oxytocin at elective caesarean delivery. Standardisation of bleeding-related outcomes in studies is necessary to facilitate synthesis of data in future analyses.

      Keywords

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