Types of articleThe International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
welcomes original articles on clinical topics
, laboratory research
, perinatal physiology
; and on all subjects of relevance and importance to obstetric anaesthesia. We welcome submissions related to global health, maternal safety and inequalities of care.
Original articles include randomised controlled trials, observational prospective and retrospective studies, meta-analyses, case-controlled studies, case series, systematic and narrative reviews. Short reports will also be considered for an original article when the aim, outcome and findings are presented succinctly with one illustrative Table or Figure. Each of these is associated with specific guidelines with regard to content and construct, such as provided by the CONSORT and STROBE guidelines. Please see Registration of clinical trials and journal governance. Int J Obstet Anesth 2014;23:204-5. Submitting case reports
As discussed in 'Case reports and consent to publication. Int J Obstet Anesth
. 2016;28:1-2', the International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia understands the importance of case descriptions in our sub-specialised field.
However, to be accepted for publication, most case descriptions should be submitted as correspondence
(maximum of 750 words and up to 10 references and two tables of figures) and contain focused messages.Full Case reports need to have important and novel learning points. A simple narrative of a complex or challenging patient(s) or a patient with a rare condition is insufficient.
Case series dealing with important areas of practice with a thorough review of the relevant literature will be considered. When writing the case description, it is recommended that authors describe the salient features of the case, their novel clinical/technical solutions or features, and add a short discussion about prior knowledge. Please see guidelines such as those at www.CARE-statement.org
Submissions of correspondence or case reports in which a potentially identifiable patient is described, without author retention of written consent from the patient, will not be considered for publication (see Ethics in Publishing below).
The format for a full Case Report is maximum of 1000 words
, with up to 25 references (please note that in-text citations are included in the word count) and a maximum of 4 tables and figures (consider supplementary material). Declarations regarding funding are usually not applicable. Invited review articles
The journal publishes review articles and debates on topical and controversial subjects in the area of obstetric anaesthesia. Reviews are often commissioned, although authors may contact the Editor-in-Chief if they wish to discuss potential topics.Surveys
Surveys will be considered provided they are likely to be of broad interest, well designed and conducted, adequately representative of the anaesthesia community, and have a response rate that is approximately 70% or more. Surveys with a lower response rate will be considered for publication as a letter or occasionally considered for publication as an article, depending on the importance of the topic surveyed and at the editors' discretion. Contact details for submission
Authors may send queries concerning the submission process, manuscript status, or journal procedures to the Editorial Office.
Please visit our Support Center
. Submission Checklist
You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details. Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded:Manuscript
• Include keywords
• Include highlights - 3 to 5 bullet points, with no more
than 85 characters each, including spaces.
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in printGraphical Abstracts / Highlights files
(where applicable)Supplemental files
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• Relevant declarations of interest have been made
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements
For further information, visit our Support Center
. Reporting guidelines
The editors require that manuscripts adhere to recognized reporting guidelines relevant to the research design used and require authors to submit a checklist verifying that essential elements have been reported for all primary research and systematic reviews.
Reporting guidelines endorsed by the journal are listed below:
You are required to adhere to these guidelines (or a suitable recognized alternative) and to submit a completed checklist from the reporting guideline to assist the editors and reviewers of your paper. You can search for the correct guideline for your study using the tools provided by the EQUATOR network: http://www.equator-network.org/
The guideline used must be indicated in the Author Checklist
and the completed Standards of Reporting Checklist must also be included in your submission. Ethics in publishing
Please see our information on Ethics in publishing
A paper that contains the results of human and/or animal studies will only be accepted for publication if it is made clear that a high standard of ethics was applied in carrying out the investigation. All clinical investigators must follow the Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki
In the case of invasive studies of humans, the text should include a statement that the research protocol was approved by a local institutional review board or ethics committee (with specific details such as reference number) and that written consent was obtained from all subjects. Informed consent and patient details
Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author but copies should not be provided to the journal. Only if specifically requested by the journal in exceptional circumstances (for example if a legal issue arises) the author must provide copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals
. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission. Declaration of interests
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information
. Declaration of generative AI in scientific writing
The below guidance only refers to the writing process, and not to the use of AI tools to analyse and draw insights from data as part of the research process.
Where authors use generative artificial intelligence (AI) and AI-assisted technologies in the writing process, authors should only use these technologies to improve readability and language. Applying the technology should be done with human oversight and control, and authors should carefully review and edit the result, as AI can generate authoritative-sounding output that can be incorrect, incomplete or biased. AI and AI-assisted technologies should not be listed as an author or co-author, or be cited as an author. Authorship implies responsibilities and tasks that can only be attributed to and performed by humans, as outlined in Elsevier’s AI policy for authors
Authors should disclose in their manuscript the use of AI and AI-assisted technologies in the writing process by following the instructions below. A statement will appear in the published work. Please note that authors are ultimately responsible and accountable for the contents of the work.Disclosure instructions
Authors must disclose the use of generative AI and AI-assisted technologies in the writing process by adding a statement at the end of their manuscript in the core manuscript file, before the References list. The statement should be placed in a new section entitled ‘Declaration of Generative AI and AI-assisted technologies in the writing process’.Statement: During the preparation of this work the author(s) used [NAME TOOL / SERVICE] in order to [REASON]. After using this tool/service, the author(s) reviewed and edited the content as needed and take(s) full responsibility for the content of the publication.
This declaration does not apply to the use of basic tools for checking grammar, spelling, references etc. If there is nothing to disclose, there is no need to add a statement. Submission declaration
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication
' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. Preprints
Please note that preprints
can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy
. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication
' for more information). Use of inclusive language
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. When coding terminology is used, we recommend to avoid offensive or exclusionary terms such as "master", "slave", "blacklist" and "whitelist". We suggest using alternatives that are more appropriate and (self-) explanatory such as "primary", "secondary", "blocklist" and "allowlist". These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive. Reporting sex- and gender-based analysesReporting guidance
For research involving or pertaining to humans, animals or eukaryotic cells, investigators should integrate sex and gender-based analyses (SGBA) into their research design according to funder/sponsor requirements and best practices within a field. Authors should address the sex and/or gender dimensions of their research in their article. In cases where they cannot, they should discuss this as a limitation to their research's generalizability. Importantly, authors should explicitly state what definitions of sex and/or gender they are applying to enhance the precision, rigor and reproducibility of their research and to avoid ambiguity or conflation of terms and the constructs to which they refer (see Definitions section below). Authors can refer to the Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines
and the SAGER guidelines checklist
. These offer systematic approaches to the use and editorial review of sex and gender information in study design, data analysis, outcome reporting and research interpretation - however, please note there is no single, universally agreed-upon set of guidelines for defining sex and gender.Definitions
Sex generally refers to a set of biological attributes that are associated with physical and physiological features (e.g., chromosomal genotype, hormonal levels, internal and external anatomy). A binary sex categorization (male/female) is usually designated at birth ("sex assigned at birth"), most often based solely on the visible external anatomy of a newborn. Gender generally refers to socially constructed roles, behaviors, and identities of women, men and gender-diverse people that occur in a historical and cultural context and may vary across societies and over time. Gender influences how people view themselves and each other, how they behave and interact and how power is distributed in society. Sex and gender are often incorrectly portrayed as binary (female/male or woman/man) and unchanging whereas these constructs actually exist along a spectrum and include additional sex categorizations and gender identities such as people who are intersex/have differences of sex development (DSD) or identify as non-binary. Moreover, the terms "sex" and "gender" can be ambiguous—thus it is important for authors to define the manner in which they are used. In addition to this definition guidance and the SAGER guidelines, the resources on this page
offer further insight around sex and gender in research studies. Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before
submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before
the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author
: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after
the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum. Reporting clinical trials
Researchers must pre-register clinical trials involving an intervention on a public registry at or before the time of first recruitment. Many web-based public registries are now available including http://www.clinicaltrials.gov
. Please see http://www.who.int/ictrp/network/primary/en/
for a detailed list. We will not accept interventional studies that have not been pre-registered on a trial registration site prior to enrolment. Submissions of clinical trials that do not specifically identify the registry and state the registry number will not be considered for review. Please provide the direct URL link to your trial in the cover letter. Article transfer service
This journal uses the Elsevier Article Transfer Service to find the best home for your manuscript. This means that if an editor feels your manuscript is more suitable for an alternative journal, you might be asked to consider transferring the manuscript to such a journal. The recommendation might be provided by a Journal Editor, a dedicated Scientific Managing Editor
, a tool assisted recommendation, or a combination. If you agree, your manuscript will be transferred, though you will have the opportunity to make changes to the manuscript before the submission is complete. Please note that your manuscript will be independently reviewed by the new journal. More information
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information
on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission
of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms
for use by authors in these cases.
For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'License Agreement' (more information
). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information
. Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research
published in Elsevier journals. Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, it is recommended to state this. Open access
Please visit our Open Access page
for more information. Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service
available from Elsevier's Author Services. Submission
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except as an abstract or part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration (in whole or in part) for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all Authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent from the International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
, the copyright-holder.
Please submit your article via https://www.editorialmanager.com/yijoa/default.aspx
For questions about the editorial process (including the status of manuscripts under review) or for technical support on submissions, please visit our Support Center
. Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier
). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
Manuscripts should have 1.0 line spacing, including tables and references. Pages should be numbered consecutively. Authors are advised to study recent issues of the International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
to assess the level of detail required for publication. For guidance, original research articles should not exceed 3000 words, case reports 1000 words, reviews 5000 words, editorials 1500 words and correspondence 750 words (excluding references) Article structureAbstract
. This should consist of not more than 250 words summarising the contents of the article and should contain no references or abbreviations (unless the latter are essential to meet the word count). For submissions other than case reports and reviews, use a structured abstract with the headings: Background, Methods, Results, Conclusions - with all submissions followed by Key Words, with each new one capitalised and in alphabetical order. Title Page Title.
Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible. State the design of the study if appropriate. Author names and affiliations.
Please clearly indicate the initials (not first names) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Do not include qualifications. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done, and including the country) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Authors contributions are not required. Corresponding author.
Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is provided (professional rather than personal if possible). Do not include telephone contact (but ensure that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author). Present/permanent address.
If the corresponding author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes. Word counts
Each manuscript should comply with the following: Original Research
- 3000 words, with up to 40 references (please note that in-text citations are included in the word count). Maximum of 6 tables and figures (consider supplementary material) Short Reports
- 1500 words, with up to 25 references (please note that in-text citations are included in the word count). Maximum of 4 tables and figures (consider supplementary material) Case Reports
- 1000 words, with up to 25 references (please note that in-text citations are included in the word count). Declarations regarding funding are usually not applicable. Maximum of 4 tables and figures (consider supplementary material). Reviews
- 5000 words, with up to 80 references (please note that in-text citations are included in the word count). Maximum of 6 tables and figures (consider supplementary material) Editorials
- 1500 words, with up to 60 references (please note that in-text citations are included in the word count). Highlights are not required. Declarations regarding funding are usually not applicable. Maximum of 4 tables and figures (consider supplementary material) Correspondence
- 750 words, with up to 10 references (please note that in-text citations are included in the word count). Highlights are not required. Declarations regarding funding are usually not applicable. Maximum of 2 tables and figures (consider supplementary material) Points of styleHeadings
should be appropriate to the nature of the paper. In general, those for experimental papers should follow the usual conventions. Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion etc. and do not need to be on separate sheets. Sub-headings are not used in general but can sometimes improve readability. Do not insert compulsory line breaks within the text; please indent new paragraphs.
Avoid new or unusual abbreviations
and only use those in routine use: the abbreviation should be fully explained in parentheses at its first occurrence in the manuscript text. All abbreviations used in tables and figures should be defined in the legend. All measurements
should be expressed in metric units, SI units being preferred except in the case of fluid pressures e.g. mmHg. For more detailed recommendations, authors may consult the Royal Society of Medicine publication: Units, Symbols and Abbreviations: A Guide for Biological and Medical Editors and Authors.
Propriety names and drugs, instruments etc. if essential, should start with initial capital letters.
In the text, in tables and in figures (use Fig.1, not Figure 1), please use symbols where possible
e.g. "μg", not mcg; and also use "<", not "less than". Abbreviate time units to "s", "min" and "h". For numbers less than 10, use the word e.g. nine, not 9. For numbers larger than nine thousand nine hundred and ninety-nine, please use a character space rather than a comma e.g. 12 347, not 12,347.
For 95%CIs, please use "to" between values rather than a hyphen e.g. 10 to 17, not 10-17. Use P
If you have mentioned any drug name
, please refer to the drug by its generic name. If you feel it is important to include the drug's brand name, please add this in parentheses indicating the drug company name and city, state, and country. For any device or manufacturer mentioned, the full company name, location (city and state for US manufacturers; city and country for international) must also appear the first time it is presented in the manuscript text. Highlights
"Highlights" are mandatory for this journal as they help increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research, as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Name and include up to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point)
. Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights
Highlights should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Graphical abstract
Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts
on our information site. Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].
It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.
If no funding has been provided for the research, it is recommended to include the following sentence:
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Electronic artworkGeneral points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
• Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork
is available.You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.Formats
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content. Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article
. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork
. Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not
on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. Tables
Number tables in the order in which they are cited in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Ensure that the data presented in tables are not duplicated in the text. Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication. Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article. Preprint references
Where a preprint has subsequently become available as a peer-reviewed publication, the formal publication should be used as the reference. If there are preprints that are central to your work or that cover crucial developments in the topic, but are not yet formally published, these may be referenced. Preprints should be clearly marked as such, for example by including the word preprint, or the name of the preprint server, as part of the reference. The preprint DOI should also be provided. Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles
, such as Mendeley
. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software
. Reference style
The accuracy of references is the responsibility of the author. Please do not use reference managers other than Mendeley and edit references into the style below.
Many studies have found a high percentage of errors in reference lists. There may be errors, often typographical, in the citation itself (e.g., author name, initial; title; volume; page; year) or errors of attribution (e.g., reference fails to document statement attributed to it). Please confirm the accuracy of your references by comparison with original sources, not with someone else's reference lists, and examine your citations for typographical errors.References to books:
should be set out as follows:
Eisenach JC. The pain of childbirth and its effect on the mother and fetus. In: Chestnut DH, ed. Obstetric Anesthesia Principles and Practice. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Mosby; 2004:3288-301. Citing and listing of Web references
. As a minimum, the title of the website or document, the full uniform resource locator (URL) and the accessed date should be given. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references should be included in order of citation, in the reference list. Electronic material from a web site should be set out as follows: National Institutes of Health. NIH guidelines on the inclusion of women as subjects in clinical research. Available at http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/not94-100.html
. Accessed September 30, 2009 Reference styleText:
Indicate references by (consecutive) superscript arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the text. The numerals are to be used outside
periods and commas, inside
colons and semicolons. For further detail and examples you are referred to the AMA Manual of Style
, A Guide for Authors and Editors, 11th Edition. List:
Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
1. Abbreviated journal title in italics
followed by a period (full stop).
2. Do not add square brackets  around references numbering.
3. 'et al.
' to appear in Roman throughout. Always add comma before 'et al.' in Reference list.
4. In references when there are more than six authors, cite the first three followed by 'et al
.' Please leave the comma after the third author, this should not be removed.
5. Please do not add gaps between author initials in the reference list.
6. Please do not include the issue number in brackets after the volume number. Examples:
Reference to a journal publication:
1. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun.
Reference to a journal publication with an article number:
2. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. Heliyon
. 2018;19:e00205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00205
Reference to a book:
3. Strunk W Jr, White EB. The Elements of Style.
4th ed. New York, NY: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
4. Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, eds. Introduction to the Electronic Age.
New York, NY: E-Publishing Inc; 2009:281–304.
Reference to a website:
5. Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK. Accessed 13 March 2003. http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/; 2003. .
Reference to a dataset:
[dataset] 6. Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. https://doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1
Reference to software:
7. Coon E, Berndt M, Jan A, Svyatsky D, Atchley A, Kikinzon E, Harp D, Manzini G, Shelef E, Lipnikov K, Garimella R, Xu C, Moulton D, Karra S, Painter S, Jafarov E, Molins S. Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) v0.88 (Version 0.88). Zenodo; 2020, March 25. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3727209 Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations
. Supplementary material
Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version. Research data
This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.
Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data
page. Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.
There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page
For supported data repositories
a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.
In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN). Research Elements
This journal enables you to publish research objects related to your original research – such as data, methods, protocols, software and hardware – as an additional paper in a Research Elements journal
Research Elements is a suite of peer-reviewed, open access journals which make your research objects findable, accessible and reusable. Articles place research objects into context by providing detailed descriptions of objects and their application, and linking to the associated original research articles. Research Elements articles can be prepared by you, or by one of your collaborators.
During submission, you will be alerted to the opportunity to prepare and submit a manuscript to one of the Research Elements journals.
More information can be found on the Research Elements page
. Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page
. Peer Review
This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the chief editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a handling editor, and then potentially to independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The chief editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The chief editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review
. Manuscripts authored by a member of Editorial Board
Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant editor and their research groups. Proofs
One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader
, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Offprints
The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link
providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect
. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.
Visit the Elsevier Support Center
to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article
or find out when your accepted article will be published